In the ideal approach, the benefits of the risk management scenarios including human health and environmental components, are estimated.
Calculation of Health benefits
Scientific evidence indicates that exposure to POPs - even at low concentrations - may cause a wide range of adverse effects to human health (Strawson 1997; Strober 1998). The reduction of negative health impacts due to POPs on the hotspot population represents a primary benefit (a "saved cost") of the proposed risk management scenario.
Calculation of Environmental benefits
Contamination has various environmental impacts, including:
- Direct use (such as through reduced fish harvesting);
- Indirect use (such as through the loss of biodiversity); and
- Non-use (such as through the loss of aesthetic and recreational values).
Reduction in contamination will translate into better quality of environmental resources and services (i.e., in environmental benefits).
Quantification of Health and Environmental Benefits
Quantification of the human and environmental benefits requires understanding:
- the extent to which the risk management scenarios will reduce human and environmental exposure; and
- the reduction of health and environmental impacts caused by the reduction in exposure; that is, an exposure-response relationship.