Example Risk Management Options

This page provides a list of risk management approaches. Most were presented in National Implementation Plans (NIPs); however, some additional approaches are also provided.

Chemical Hazard:

Risk management approaches addressing the chemical hazard usually involve the removal of the contaminants from soil, sediments or groundwater.

Example approaches include:

  • Excavation of contaminated soils followed by off-site disposal,
  • Solidification or stabilization,
  • Removal (excavation),
  • Disposal (off-site),
  • Removal of contamination by treating soils with microbes,
  • Phytoremediation ,
  • Chemical degradation,
  • Proper segregation,
  • Research and development.,
  • Mandatory screening for POPs contamination,
  • Cap contaminated soils,
  • Establish guidelines and limits for acceptable values of residual chemical products or equipment,
  • Redesign process, change substance/material used,
  • Include BAT in relevant industrial activities related to waste incineration and disposal, metallurgical industry, chemical industry and transportation sector,
  • Natural attenuation, or
  • Volatalization.


Risk Management approaches addressing the pathway usually involve placing a barrier between the contamination and the receptor.

Example approaches include:

  • The use of personal protective equipment,
  • Local bans on hunting/fishing,
  • Limit occupation & accidental exposure,
  • Drainage and dust erosion controls,
  • Loading and unloading control (transport),
  • Access restriction,
  • Activity restriction,
  • Compulsory use of personal protection equipment,
  • Public awareness information and education - school curriculum,
  • Monitoring & maintenance of equipment,
  • Biological and medical monitoring of workers,
  • Awareness of the value of protective equipment and going home from work with clean clothes/hands/shoes,
  • Rules and enforced demobilization and decontamination after work,
  • Sanitation and cleanliness,
  • Capping or covering contaminated soils with clean soils, asphalt etc., or
  • Using vegetation, wind fences and dust suppressants to control dust levels.


Risk Management approaches addressing the receptor usually involve restricting receptor access to the site.

Example approaches include:

  • Use of walls or fences to keep people out of the contaminated area,
  • Containment,
  • Control on storage,
  • Develop national guidelines (inventory and identification /labeling contaminated equipment),
  • Land use restrictions,
  • Provide free alternatives to behaviours resulting in risk,
  • Public awareness information and education - school curriculum,
  • Warning signs and labels, and
  • Land use restrictions on contaminated sites.

Next Steps

Screening Steps

A GeoMembrane Cap in Vancouver, BC
Source: Mike Rankin
Hatfield Consultants The World Bank funded by the Canadian POPs Trust Fund through the      
Canadian International Development Agency
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