General Risk Reduction Considerations

Use a Multi-pronged Approach

In most cases, there will be more than one way to achieve a particular risk reduction goal.  A combination of regulatory and voluntary risk management approaches should be considered when dealing with unacceptable risks at contaminated sites.


The development of risk management options requires communication and participation between government agencies and other stakeholder groups to focus on:

  • Existing national and local risk management approaches;
  • Lesson learned from other countries that have risk managed POPs (and other hazardous substance) contaminated sites;
  • New and innovative risk management measures; and
  • Resources available.

Use Existing Tools

When considering possible actions, it may also be useful to consider how existing tools and measures can be made more effective. For example, a lack of active enforcement of existing regulations, or lack of awareness, may be contributing to observed risks.

Continuum of Risk Management Approaches

Each category of risk reduction measures can be placed in a range of flexibility, between formal command and control measures to informal, voluntary measures. The figure below shows the categories of risk reduction on this range.


Conducting a multi-pronged approach requires a large amount of communication (Thailand)
Source: Hatfield Consultants
Hatfield Consultants The World Bank funded by the Canadian POPs Trust Fund through the      
Canadian International Development Agency
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